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Caranx hippos  (Linnaeus, 1766)

Crevalle jack
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Caranx hippos   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Caranx hippos (Crevalle jack)
Caranx hippos
Picture by Flescher, D.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Carangidae (Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 350 m (Ref. 7097), usually 1 - 200 m (Ref. 55173).   Subtropical; 45°N - 33°S, 98°W - 14°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 66.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 124 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); max. published weight: 32.0 kg (Ref. 27584)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 19-21; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 15 - 17. Scutes 25 to 42; no scales on chest, except a small mid-ventral patch in front of pelvic fins; upper profile of head steep; maxilla ending approximately below posterior edge of eye; front of soft dorsal and anal fins elevated; olivaceous to bluish green dorsally, silvery to brassy on the sides; prominent black spot posteriorly on gill cover at level of eye, another at upper axil of pectoral fins, and often a third on lower pectoral rays; caudal yellowish (Ref. 13442).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Angola, including the western Mediterranean. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada and northern Gulf of Mexico to Uruguay (Ref. 7251), including the Greater Antilles (Ref. 9626). Absent from eastern Lesser Antilles (Ref. 26938). Indian Ocean records are probably misidentifications of Caranx ignobilis. Reports from Pacific refer to Caranx caninus, which may be conspecific.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Generally in neritic waters over the continental shelf (Ref. 5217). Adults ascend rivers (Ref. 26938). Juveniles abundant in brackish estuaries with muddy bottoms, near sandy beaches and on seagrass beds (Ref. 5217). They form fast-moving schools, although larger fish may be solitary. They feed on smaller fish, shrimp, and other invertebrates (Ref. 5521). Often grunts or croaks are heard when caught. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Smith-Vaniz, William F. | Collaborators

Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter, 1990. Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Aquaculture: production; fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=-1.74000 (nan - nan), b=2.99 (2.83 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm 3-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.