Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 100 m. Subtropical; 37°N - 10°N, 98°W - 73°W
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida in the USA and the entire Gulf of Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 18 - ? cm
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3815)
Found mainly on sedimentary bottoms from 10 and 100 m depth.
Sex reversal, from female to male, occurs primarily at 18-25 cm FL (Ref. 5878).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.7 - 27.5, mean 24.8 (based on 216 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03802 (0.02153 - 0.06714), b=2.94 (2.79 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.23; tmax=12; tm=1; Fec=>30,000).
Prior r = 0.64, 2 SD range = 0.43 - 0.96, log(r) = -0.45, SD log(r) = 0.2, Based on: 1 M, 1 K, 2 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .