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Brosme brosme  (Ascanius, 1772)

Tusk
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Brosme brosme
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Lotidae (Hakes and burbots)
Etymology: Brosme: Greek, brosomai, bibrosko = to eat up, to devour (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 18 - 1000 m (Ref. 1371), usually 18 - 549 m (Ref. 1371).   Temperate, preferred 10°C (Ref. 107945); 83°N - 37°N, 75°W - 57°E (Ref. 1371)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northwest Atlantic: New Jersey to the Strait of Belle Isle and on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Rare at the southern tip of Greenland. Northeast Atlantic: off Iceland, in the northern North Sea, and along the coast of Scandinavia to the Murmansk Coast and at Spitzbergen.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 50.0, range 50 - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9988); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371); max. published weight: 30.0 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 1371)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 93-103; Anal soft rays: 62 - 75; Vertebrae: 64 - 67. Barbel on present on chin, none on snout, its length equal to eye diameter. Color is variable; dorsally dark red-brown or green brown to yellow shading into pale color on belly. Young specimens may have six transverse yellow bands on sides. Vertical fins with dark margin rimmed with white.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in small shoals on rough, rock, gravel, or pebble bottoms. Generally keeps far from the shore, near the bottom, mostly between 150 and 450 m in the northeastern Atlantic, and between 18 and 550 m in the northwestern Atlantic. Occurs at a temperature range of 0°-10° C (Ref. 9988). Solitary or in small groups. Feeds on crustaceans and shellfishes, benthic fishes (flatfishes and gurnard) and even on starfishes. Preyed upon by seals (Ref. 9988). Sold fresh, frozen as fillets or dried salted. Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawns in shallower waters between 40-400 m, usually 100 to 200 m. Most important spawning grounds are located between Scotland and Iceland, from 200 to 500 m depth. In the Gulf of Maine, spawning grounds can be found in shallower waters (>50 m). Some individuals even spawn close inshore in Cape Cod, Provincetown Harbor and the Isles of Shoals (Ref. 1371).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | RFE Identification | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00252 - 0.00951), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08-0.16; tm=8-10; tmax=20; Fec=2 million).
Prior r = 0.36, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 0.62, log(r) = -1.02, SD log(r) = 0.27, Based on: 1 M, 9 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 7 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.