Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 11°S - 18°S
Africa: Okavango and upper Zambezi systems (Ref. 7248). Very similar to the largescale yellowfish and may represent the same species (Ref. 7248).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248); max. published weight: 3.2 kg (Ref. 2801)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Prefers fast water with rocky bottom and seldom occurs over sand or in aquatic vegetation (Ref. 13337). Feeds on aquatic insect larvae, crustaceans, mollusks and small fish (Ref. 13337).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00256 - 0.02466), b=3.04 (2.79 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.55 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .