Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Balistes: Latin, balista, -ae = crossbowman. In Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 275 m (Ref. 4727), usually 3 - 30 m (Ref. 40849). Tropical; 28°C - ?; 43°N - 35°S, 98°W - 14°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 5.4 kg (Ref. 4699)
soft rays: 27 - 29. Greenish or bluish gray on back, orange-yellow on lower part of head and abdomen, with two broad diagonal curved bright blue bands running from snout to below and in front of pectoral fins, the lowermost continuous with a blue ring around lips; a broad blue bar across caudal peduncle, and blue sub-marginal bands in median fins (Ref. 13442).
Eastern Atlantic: Ascension, Cape Verde, and Azores (Ref. 7348); ranges south to southern Angola (Ref. 4420). Western Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951) to Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to southeastern Brazil (Ref. 7251).
Found over rocky or coral areas (Ref. 5217). May form schools, sometimes solitary over sand and grassy areas. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 4727). It preys on sea urchins by blowing water to overturn it and then attacks it where the spines are short (Ref. 9710). Excellent food fish but occasionally can cause intoxication due to the liver.
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=-1.65000 (nan - nan), b=3.02 (2.86 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.15-0.57).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .