Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Grammistinae
Etymology: Aulacocephalus: Greek, aulos = flute + Greek, kephales = head (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 350 m (Ref. 58488). Tropical; 20°N - 36°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa (Ref. 4326) to Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. One specimen from Rapa (Ref. 4326).
Inhabits caves and crevices in rocky reefs (Ref. 9710). Skin contains grammistin which imparts a bitter taste. The amount of toxin produced increases when the fish is frightened (Ref. 4326). Minimum depth reportedtaken from Ref. 09710.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1986. Grammistidae. p. 537-538. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4326)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4326)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00431 - 0.02921), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .