Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 180 m (Ref. 9002), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 9002). Temperate; 32°S - 38°S
Indo-West Pacific: Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9002)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Body long, rounded, head flattened with pointed snout, gill slits lateral, no ridge over eyes.
Occurs on the continental shelf, from close inshore to offshore. Oviparous (Ref. 6871).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.4 - 20.5, mean 17.9 °C (based on 134 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00171 - 0.00643), b=3.14 (2.96 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .