Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 58 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 54.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 4919) to the Tuamoto Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Southeast Atlantic: south coast of South Africa (Ref. 4919).
Relatively uncommon in patch reefs and coral slopes near sandy areas of clear lagoon and seaward reefs. Juveniles occur in sandy and weedy inner reefs, adults on clear lagoons and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Juveniles inshore, usually on muddy substrates and often estuarine. Adults on deep slopes and range to outer reefs, sometimes swimming high above the substrate or just below the surface. Pelagic larvae may disperse over great distance and juveniles occur in subtropical zone (Ref. 48637). Enter estuaries (Ref. 4833). Considered as the giant among puffers reaching a total length well in excess of a meter.
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 559)
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.04790 (0.02825 - 0.08122), b=2.87 (2.73 - 3.01), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .