Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 73 m (Ref. 89467). Tropical; 30°N - 32°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Durban, South Africa (Ref. 4919) and east to the Panama, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Lord Howe and Easter islands. Eastern Pacific: Guaymas, Mexico to Ecuador (Ref. 9349).
Occurs in coral-rich areas of clear lagoon and seaward reefs, Ref. 48637. Prefers oceanic localities (Ref. 48637). Solitary (Ref. 90102). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feeds mainly on tips of branching corals and to a lesser extent on sponges, mollusks, bryozoans, tunicates, forams, algae, and detritus.
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03160 (0.01422 - 0.07024), b=2.92 (2.74 - 3.10), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .