Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 4 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 35°N - 28°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa south to Natal, South Africa (Ref. 4919) and east to Samoa, northward to the Ryukyus and western sea of Japan, southward to New Caledonia and Queensland, Australia.
Occur in clear lagoon and sheltered seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Solitary (Ref. 90102). Adults usually along deep drop-offs (Ref. 48637). Usually close to shelter. Occur singly (Ref. 9710). Feed on algae, sponges, and benthic invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 393)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02692 (0.01211 - 0.05983), b=2.87 (2.69 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.19 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .