Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 37°N - 33°S, 32°E - 168°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4919)
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (including the south coast of South Africa, Ref. 4919) to Indonesia, north to southern Japan.
Inhabits weedy areas, often in estuaries; seagrass beds (Ref. 41878) and mangrove areas in 1-1.5 m. Solitary (Ref. 90102). Specimens caught by trawling over silty bottoms in 17 m. (Ref. 9137).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1985. On the validity of the tetraodontid fish Arothron manilensis (Procé). Jap. J. Ichthyol. 32(3):347-354. (Ref. 5170)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 393)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03715 (0.02201 - 0.06271), b=2.88 (2.73 - 3.03), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .