Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rhinobatidae
(Guitarfishes) > Rhinobatinae
Etymology: Aptychotrema: Greek, a = without + Greek, ptyx, ptychos = fold + Greek, trema = hole (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 20 - 60 m (Ref. 12951). Temperate; 24°S - 35°S (Ref. 75154)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12951); 120.0 cm TL (female)
Western Pacific: endemic to Australia.
Found on soft bottoms off beaches, lower parts of estuaries and offshore down to 50 m depth or more (Ref. 9909). Feeds on bottom crustaceans, mollusks, and fishes (Ref. 9909). Caught in nets (Ref. 9909). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9909).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous with up to 4 in a litter. Size at birth about 13 cm.
Compagno, L.J.V. and P.R. Last, 1999. Rhinobatidae. Guitarfishes. p. 1423-1430. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 9909)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.62 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .