Amphilophus citrinellus  (Günther, 1864)

Midas cichlid
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Amphilophus citrinellus
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Cichlasomatinae
Etymology: Amphilophus: Greek, amphi = on both sides + Greek, lophos = crest (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic.   Tropical; 23°C - 33°C (Ref. 7335); 15°N - 8°N

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36377)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

This species coloration is mostly bright orange to orange-red in adults; mature males are of larger size, longer fins and with a distinct hump on their heads; aquarists usually refer to the lighter-colored, thin-lipped form as this species.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Central America: Atlantic slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica (San Juan River drainage, including Lakes Nicaragua, Managua, Masaya and Apoyo).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Lives in box-cut canals with rocky vertical sides, crevices used for spawning and protection of the young (Ref. 5723). Found in lakes; uncommon in the rivers but will penetrate the lower river valleys where the water is slow flowing or tranquil (Ref. 7335). Omnivorous, eating mostly aufwuchs, snails and small fishes (Ref. 7335); also feeds on insect larvae, worms and other bottom-dwelling organisms (Ref. 44091). Majority of this fish has normal cryptic coloration (black, gray or brown), matching the substrate for camouflage and survival purposes. About 10 % of this species is xanthomorphic, undergoing a color metamorphosis at varying stages of growth (Ref. 7335). An experimental fish being used for behavioral studies (Ref. 4537).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Kullander, Sven O. | Collaborators

Kullander, S.O., 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). p. 605-654. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.47 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec=300-1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.