Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Amblyraja: Greek, amblys = darkness + Latin, raja, -ae = ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 366 - 2295 m (Ref. 58426). Deep-water; 67°N - 40°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 74.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4926); 85.0 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Lacks large thorns on anterior margins and mid posterior parts of pectorals and on either side of mid-dorsal ridge on the disc. Upper surface plain light brown, either grayish or of chocolate hue, darker along margins of fins. Lower surface brownish gray, grayish white or perhaps pure white (Ref. 6902).
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to southern New England, USA. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland (Ref. 12462).
Benthic (Ref. 58426). Deep-water species. Prefers higher temperatures. Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6902). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00302 (0.00135 - 0.00674), b=3.21 (3.03 - 3.39), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.54 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .