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Aluterus monoceros  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Unicorn leatherjacket filefish
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Aluterus monoceros   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Aluterus monoceros (Unicorn leatherjacket filefish)
Aluterus monoceros
Picture by Flescher, D.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae (Filefishes)
Etymology: Aluterus: Greek, a = without, privative + Latin, lutarius, -a, -um = that lives in the mud (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 90102).   Subtropical; 43°N - 35°S

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3467); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 45-52; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 47 - 53. Rudimentary pelvic spine disappears in large specimen (Ref. 36453). Snout convex in adults (Ref. 1602). Sandy to grey with small brown spots above; soft dorsal and anal fins pale yellowish to brownish; caudal membrane blackish brown (Ref. 4421).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumtropical. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to Argentina (Ref. 36453). Eastern Atlantic: west coast of tropical Africa (Ref. 3592). Eastern Pacific: Guatemala to Chile (Ref. 9068); probably in Mexico (Ref. 9318). Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique and South Africa (Ref. 4421). Recently recorded from Reunion (Ref. 53568).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occasionally in shallow water by steep drop-offs. Solitary or in pairs, occasionally in groups of five or six, at less than 10 m depth. Juveniles are pelagic, seen under floating objects (Ref. 9318, 48637). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Adults and juveniles are rarely seen near reefs. Juveniles often with large jellies and these may bring them close to reefs and adults may nest on sandflats adjacent to reefs in deep water. At other times, the adults may form large schools under weed-rafts that usually form during the wet season (Ref. 48637). Feed on benthic organisms (Ref. 30573).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Hutchins, Barry | Collaborators

Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Monacanthidae. p. 1061-1066. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3592)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  .
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.