Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 46888); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 9003), usually 0 - 10 m (Ref. 9812). Temperate; ? - 28°C (Ref. 28706); 25°S - 47°S, 112°E - 173°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. published weight: 950.00 g (Ref. 26498); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 9003)
soft rays: 12. More pointed head and mouth than Mugil cephalus, and their eyes lack adipose (fatty) eyelids. Body scales are small (54-64 between gill opening and tail base) and thin, and are easily dislodged. 2 widely separated dorsal fins, the first with 4 spines and the second with 1 spine and 9 rays. These fish are olive or bluish brown above and silvery on the sides, and their eyes are bright yellow or golden. The fins have brown margins.
Southwest Pacific: throughout New Zealand and the Chatham Islands; also from eastern, western Australia, southern Australia and Tasmania.
Found over sandy and muddy bottoms of coastal waters, bays, estuaries, and may ascend rivers into freshwaters (Ref. 9812, 44894). Adults inhabit brackish coastal lakes (Ref. 44894). Found in schools (Ref. 9812). Shoal-forming (Ref. 44894). They are omnivores, feeding mostly on benthic detritus, algae and small invertebrates. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Spawn in coastal waters in summer and autumn, probably in estuaries (Ref. 9812, 27012, 28470, 28707, 28708). Marketed fresh (whole gutted or fillets), smoked, salted or as roe (Ref. 3383).
Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993. Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, Australia. 422 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01320 (0.00627 - 0.02780), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-3; tmax=7; Fec=125,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .