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Alburnus chalcoides  (Güldenstädt, 1772)

Danube bleak
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Alburnus chalcoides
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Alburninae
Etymology: Alburnus: From the city of Al Bura, where the fish was known (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243).   Temperate; 5°C - 20°C (Ref. 12468); 61°N - 38°N, 9°E - 55°E

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 556); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1441); common length :28 cm TL (female)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Diagnosed from its congeners in Caspian and Black Sea basin by having the following characters: anal fin origin about 1½ -2½ scales behind last branched dorsal ray; lateral line with 54-65 + 4-5 scales; anal fin rays with 13-15½ branched rays; 18-23 gill rakers; ventral keel exposed for 8-12 scales in front of anus (up to almost 80% of distance between anus and pelvic base); head length 20-24% SL; predorsal length 52-56% SL; caudal peduncle depth 1.9-2.4 times in its length; nuptial males with few, large tubercles; lacking dark midlateral stripe. Morphology is variable which has been considered to be an adaptation to different habitats, but data suggest that this is probably due to several species being confused under this species (Ref. 59043).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: Caspian (mostly western to southern coast, rarely found in Ural and Volga). Populations from Aral Sea basin might belong to this species (Ref. 59043). Reported from the Black Sea basin (Ref. 58342). In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit lower reaches of rives, coastal lakes, estuaries, and brackish areas of sea. Occur close to surface and tolerate salinities up to 14 ppt. Adults predominantly prey on planktonic crustaceans, terrestrial insects and small fish while larvae and young juveniles feed on zooplankton, algae and insect larvae. Spawn in small rivers or streams with heavy current on gravel bottom. Landlocked populations found in reservoirs spawn in reservoir tributaries (Ref. 59043). Eastern populations migrate upstream for spawning (Ref. 13696). Males assemble and wait at the spawning grounds for ripe females, which arrive later. Deposit sticky eggs which adhere on pebbles or stones. Embryonic development lasts 2-3 days, with larvae first staying among gravel for 8-11 days, then actively migrating to shallows and backwaters. Adults migrate back to sea, lakes or estuaries soon after spawning to forage. Young juvenile undertake downriver migration in autumn of same year or next spring. Due to dam constructions, almost all long-distance migrating populations lost as they were unable to reach spawning sites. Survive in small water courses and as landlocked populations in some reservoirs. Populations are expected to decline and to further decline due to expanding hydroelectric development and strong ecological impacts on Caspian sea (Ref. 59043).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland. 646 p. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins
Swim. type
Gill area


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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00566 - 0.00927), b=3.10 (3.03 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-5; tmax=9; K=0.10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.