This species is synonym of Albula forsteri Valenciennes, 1847.
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Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated. Tropical; 42°N - 32°S, 43°E - 153°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Tip of lower jaw angular, with a pointed symphysis; no black pigment on ventral surface of snout; tooth patches on parasphenoid and basibranchial bones more elongate, average width divided by length is 0.28 and 0.34, respectively; number of teeth in second pharyngobranchial tooth patch usually 15-30.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri
Indo-Pacific. Possibly occurs in Micronesia (Ref. 1602).
Typically found on sandy substrates, sometimes coming into very shallow waters on sand flats (Ref 2334, 48635), to feed on sand-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 48635). Sometimes enters estuaries and freshwater (Ref. 7050). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3289).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5007 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01223 (-0.15774 - 0.18221), b=3.01517 (2.91439 - 3.11595), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .