Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Achiridae
Etymology: Achirus: Greek, a = without + Greek, cheir = hands (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 36453). Tropical, preferred ?; 30°N -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 80009); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Western Atlantic: Florida, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern Argentina.
Occurs mainly in brackish or hyper-saline lagoons (Ref. 5217), on sandy-muddy bottoms of estuaries and in the littoral zone where it hides itself leaving just its eyes out. Can easily disguise itself in the environment. Feeds on worms, crustaceans and small fishes. Juveniles have a brief planktonic life, moving quickly to the benthic stage. Its growth rate is relatively slow (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00910 - 0.01383), b=3.13 (3.07 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .