Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Paralichthyidae
Etymology: Paralichthys: Greek, para = the side of + Greek, ichthys = fish + Greek, suffix, oides = similar to (Ref. 45335). More on author: Jordan, Gilbert.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Subtropical; 37°N - 26°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 35 cm
Max length : 83.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3275); max. published weight: 9.3 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 46275)
Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Texas in USA, but absent from southern Florida.
Found mostly over mud bottoms in estuaries and coastal waters to about 40 m depth. A cryptic species; tolerates low salinities; occurs frequently in brackish bays and estuaries, even on occasion in fresh water (Ref. 9988). Taken by anglers inshore from bridges, jetties and small boats; this species moves to deeper water in winter, but is still easily accessible (Ref. 9988). Feeds chiefly on fishes, also on crabs and shrimps. Juveniles take mainly small bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00612 (-0.09841 - 0.11065), b=3.17 (3.11 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for species & genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.21-0.23; tmax=8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .