Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - ? m. Subtropical; 45°N - 9°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 111 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
Western Atlantic: Maine, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Absent from the Bahamas and Antilles (Ref. 3129).
Inhabits coastal areas and mangrove-lined lagoons. Enters freshwater. Feeds mainly on small fishes. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205). Only the right gonad is developed (Ref. 26938). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00120 (0.00071 - 0.00203), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .