Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Norman.
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical, preferred ?
Africa: Sassandra and Bandama basins in Côte d'Ivoire (Ref. 272, 57223), Pra in Ghana, Volta basin in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Togo (Ref. 57223). Also reported from the middle Niger in Nigeria (map in Ref. 57223), but this may need verification.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57223)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; eye at most 23% of head length and 46% of snout length; post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length; maxillary barbels unbranched, longer than head, without tubercles and bordered by a distinct basal membrane; outer mandibular barbels with many thick and short ramifications; branches of inner mandibular barbels subdivided and tuberculate; mandibular teeth moderately developed, numbering 37-43 (37 in the holotype); denticulations of pectoral-fin spines weaker on outer than on inner margin; dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly; humeral process triangular and keeled ventrally; adipose fin well developed and close to rayed dorsal fin; branched dorsal-fin rays, as well as dorsal- and pectoral-fin spines prolonged into filaments; spots present on body and fins (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: body more or less dark brownish, covered, as the head and adipose fin, with large, rounded, black spots; other fins with smaller black spots; membranes of maxillary barbels black (Ref. 57223).
Maximum TL was recorded at 23.8 cm (Ref. 57223). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00906 - 0.03038), b=2.97 (2.81 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .