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Sciades proops  (Valenciennes, 1840)

Crucifix sea catfish
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sciades proops   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sciades proops (Crucifix sea catfish)
Sciades proops
Picture by Kolding, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes (Catfish) > Ariidae (Sea catfishes) > Ariinae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal.   Tropical

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 52 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3265); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3265); max. published weight: 9.0 kg (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 51629)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 1. The head is more or less flattened, the nostril nearly rounded, mouth inferior. There are three pairs of barbels, 1 pair of maxillary barbel and 2 pairs of mandibular barbels.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Caribbean and Atlantic draining rivers and estuaries from Colombia to Brazil.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits mainly brackish estuaries and lagoons. Occurs also in freshwaters (Ref. 58022). Found on shallow muddy bottoms (Ref. 5217). Feeds on fish and shrimps. Two annual cycles of slower growth occur during the dry seasons (March and August to November). Life span is three to four years. Sexually mature at 1.5 to 2 years of age. Reproduction takes place from November to April. Consumed as food (Ref. 35381). Marketed fresh. The skull is sold throughout the world as crucifix.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Pairing involved in reproduction. Mouth brooding may be employed (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Ferraris, Jr., Carl J. | Collaborators

Taylor, W.R. and N.A. Menezes, 1978. Ariidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). volume 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3265)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 36613)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00231 - 0.01140), b=3.11 (2.91 - 3.31), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1.5; tmax=3.5; K=0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.