Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical, preferred ?; 30°S - 33°S
Africa: Clanwilliam Olifants River system, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 98.7 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248); max. published weight: 10.7 kg (Ref. 7248)
Favors deep pools and runs of large tributaries and mainstreams as well as impounded waters. Omnivorous, feeding on algae and aquatic invertebrates such as insects, snails, and crabs. Large specimens also take frogs and small fish. Breeds in summer, migrating upstream to spawn over gravel beds.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.56 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .