Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 46 - 90 m (Ref. 9342). Subtropical; 33°N - 10°S, 116°W - 78°W (Ref. 5222)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: dark red or brown head and body; darker pectoral fins than body; tips of interspinous dorsal fin membranes darker than the rest of the membranes; prominent black moustache streak occurs above maxilla; depth of body contained 2.4-2.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.4 times in SL; convex interorbital area; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, enlarged serrae at angle but covered by skin; distinctly convex upper edge of operculum (Ref. 89707).
Eastern Pacific: southern California in the USA, south to Peru.
Common in the Gulf of California. Occasionally encountered in isolated reefs and sandy bottoms near the coast at depths of 46 to 90 m; uncommon in shallow waters (Ref. 89707).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Craig, M.T. and P.A. Hastings, 2007. A molecular phylogeny of the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae (Serranidae) with revised classification of the epinephelini. Ichthyol. Res. 54:1-17. (Ref. 83414)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00590 - 0.01857), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .