Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Ipnopidae
(Deep-sea tripod fishes)
Etymology: Ipnops: Greek, hypnos = sleep + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335). More on author: Garman.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 1392 - 4163 m (Ref. 3590). Deep-water; 6°N - 22°S
Eastern Atlantic: Mid-Atlantic Ridge at latitudes of 5°- 6°N and off Namibia. Elsewhere, widely scattered localities in the Indo-Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3590); common length : 13.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3590)
Abyssobenthic on the lower slope and rise. Largest eggs ca 0.8 mm; fecundity is low with ca 85-300 eggs per clutch. Eyes are particularly modified into flat lenseless plaques as in Ipnops murrayi.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Merrett, N.R., 1990. Chlorophthalmidae. p. 351-360. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3590)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.9 - 3.2, mean 2.3 (based on 1066 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00197 - 0.01219), b=3.03 (2.81 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .