Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Smelts) > Opisthoproctidae
(Barreleyes or spookfishes)
Etymology: Monacoa: The name constructed by Whitley was without any etymological reason; however, it is likely referring to the state of Monaco, in which the research expedition that sampled the two syntypes originated..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 4750 m (Ref. 58018), usually 300 - 400 m (Ref. 6542). Deep-water; 43°N - 49°S, 149°E - 15°E
Tropical to subtropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6542)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Dorsal part of head transparent, ventral part and ventral 2/3 of body peppered with large melanophores; ventral surface of rear part of sole with 4 dark blotches (Ref. 6597). Body deep and anal fin on a vertical at posterior end of the sole, short based, rays directed posteriorly (Ref. 37473).
Mesopelagic (Ref. 58302). The limits of its distribution are marked by the 10°C isotherm and the 34, 8 %o isohaline (Ref. 6542).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., 1990. Opisthroproctidae. p. 241-243. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 6542)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.8 - 17.3, mean 12.4 (based on 59 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.28 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .