Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 50 - 400 m (Ref. 4426). Subtropical; 38°N - 17°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4426)
Eastern Atlantic: Tunisia and coast of Mauritania. Raja africana Capapé, 1977 is a homonym, being preoccupied by Raja africana Bloch & Schneider, 1801(Ref. 26282) and thus needs a replacement name. Validity of this species questioned in Compagno's 1999 checklist (Ref. 35766).
Found in shelf and slope waters, depending on seasonal lower bottom water temperatures. Feeds on crustaceans and bony fishes (Ref. 3167). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .