Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Temperate
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.0, range 22 - 23 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370); max. published weight: 450.00 g (Ref. 56370)
Northwest Pacific: southern Sea of Okhotsk and Kuril Islands to northern Sea of Japan including Japan and Korean Peninsula.
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00526 - 0.01733), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .