Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal. Temperate
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 20.0, range 22 - 23 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56370); max. published weight: 450.00 g (Ref. 56370)
Northwest Pacific: southern Sea of Okhotsk and Kuril Islands to northern Sea of Japan including Japan and Korean Peninsula.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00480 - 0.01510), b=3.06 (2.91 - 3.21), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .