Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 22 - 26 cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); common length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 56527); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 56527)
Northwest Pacific: Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea, Gulf of Bo Hai, and East China Sea.
Feeds on crabs (Ref. 9137).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00555 - 0.01368), b=3.02 (2.89 - 3.15), based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.11).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .