Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Mormyridae
Etymology: Petrocephalus: Latin, petra = stone + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 23°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060); 3°S - 27°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 4 - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5214)
East Africa: Rovuma River system including Niassa Reserve, and western confluences to Lake Malawi (Ref. 91771). Following a recent revision of the Petrocephalus catostoma complex (Ref. 91771), unambiquous evidence for the presence of this species in the Bangweulu-Mweru area (and consequently the Congo basin) is still lacking (Ref. 91772).
Occurs in shallow and muddy waters, sheltered bays, in lagoons, and swampy areas. Forms shoal (Ref. 13337). Prefers quiet parts of rivers where there is abundant vegetation (Ref. 13337). Feeds mostly on insect larvae and other invertebrates at night (Ref. 5595). Shoals within quiet reaches of rivers and floodplains. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Known to undergo upriver migration which may well be correlated with breeding (Ref. 13337). Breeds during the rainy season, possibly moving upstream to suitable sites. An unconfirmed report claims the males are territorial and build a nest (Ref. 7248). Found schooling with other species with identical electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms (Ref. 10460). Caught in nets for food (5214).
Kramer, B., R. Bills, P. Skelton and M. Wink, 2012. A critical revision of the churchill snoutfish, genus Petrocephalus Marcusen, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Teleostei: Mormyridae), from southern and eastern Africa, with the recognition of Petrocephalus tanensis, and the description of five new species. Journal of Natural History 46(35-36):2179-2258.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01510 (0.00863 - 0.02643), b=2.81 (2.66 - 2.96), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.38 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 116).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .