Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes
(Ground sharks) > Pentanchidae
Etymology: Parmaturus: Latin, parma, -ae = a little shield + Greek, oura = tail. More on author: Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 88 - 1250 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 39°N - 20°N
Eastern Central Pacific: central California, USA to the Gulf of California.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 43 - 47.5 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 244); 55.0 cm TL (female)
Found on the outer continental shelf and upper slope. Feeds on a variety of small fish (e.g. lanternfish) and invertebrates. Oviparous. Possesses an enlarged gill region which is an adaptation to areas with low dissolved oxygen levels. Has a high concentration of squalene in its liver which affords it neutral buoyancy. Regularly caught by bottom trawlers but not utilized at all.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6 - 14.9, mean 7.9 (based on 29 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00263 (0.00140 - 0.00495), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .