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Pardachirus pavoninus  (Lacepède, 1802)

Peacock sole
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Pardachirus pavoninus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pardachirus pavoninus (Peacock sole)
Pardachirus pavoninus
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Soleidae (Soles)
Etymology: Pardachirus: Greek, pardias, -ou = a fish similar to grey mullet + Greek, cheir = hand (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 40 m (Ref. 1602).   Tropical; 32°N - 32°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Samoa and Tonga (Ref. 2334), north to Japan (Ref. 559), south to Onslow, Australia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334); common length : 12.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9893)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 62-73; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 48 - 55. Eyes on right side. Dorsal and anal fins separate from caudal fin; pectoral fins absent; pelvic fins unequal, the right one with an elongated base and attached posteriorly to genital papilla (Ref. 9893). Series of toxic glands along the bases of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, their pores visible (Ref. 9893). Reddish brown, densely spotted on head; body and fins of ocular surface also with spots of various sizes and shapes, bordered by a dark rim and some with a blackish spot on center (Ref. 9893).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs on sand and mud bottoms of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602, 48637). Burries itself in the sand (Ref. 48637). Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates, especially small crustaceans (Ref. 9893). Extract from sac under the skin is toxic (Ref. 559) and the mucus appears to have shark-repellent qualities.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Allen, G.R. and R. Swainston, 1988. The marine fishes of north-western Australia: a field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australian Museum, Perth. 201 p. (Ref. 3132)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 9137)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00612 - 0.01875), b=3.09 (2.93 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.