Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gymnocranius: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 50 - 100 m (Ref. 2295). Tropical; 35°N - 25°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
soft rays: 10. Lower edge of eye is intersected by line from snout tip to the middle of the caudal fin fork. Eye diameter usually about equal to the length of the snout. The interorbital space is convex and about equal to eye diameter. The inner surface of the pectoral fin axil is scaleless. Overall color is silver, sometimes slightly brown dorsally, with about eight transverse brown bars on the sides, the first crossing through the eye, the remainder below the dorsal fin and across the caudal peduncle. Scattered blotches and speckling is sometimes evident on sides. Fins are clear to yellow-orange with caudal margins and tips often deep red.
Indo-West Pacific: east Africa and Seychelles to the Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia.
Inhabits sandy or low-relief rocky bottoms (Ref. 11228). Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775).
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01532 (-0.15395 - 0.18459), b=2.98 (2.89 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .