Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gymnocranius: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kranion = skull (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 50 - 100 m (Ref. 2295). Tropical, preferred ?; 35°N - 25°S
Indo-West Pacific: east Africa and Seychelles to the Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295)
Inhabits sandy or low-relief rocky bottoms (Ref. 11228). Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9775). May be solitary or in small groups, on flat offshore trawling grounds, occasionally near shallow coral reefs (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00704 - 0.03912), b=2.99 (2.79 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .