Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Ostraciidae
Etymology: Lactoria: Latin, concerned with milk (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 132 m (Ref. 89467), usually 6 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3141)
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian and Rapa Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Southeast Atlantic: sometimes reaching the southeast coast of South Africa (Ref. 3141).
Inhabit clear outer lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic over rubble and sand at 5-132 m (Ref. 58302). Solitary (Ref. 90102). Males are highly territorial (Ref. 9710). Poisonous in some parts of the tropics (Ref. 7364).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03548 (0.01670 - 0.07539), b=2.82 (2.63 - 3.01), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .