Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated. Tropical
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54980)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa through the Indian Ocean islands to western Australia, New Guinea, Philippines, and islands of Oceania. Not found in Hawaiian islands, and apparently absent from Indo-Malayan Archipelago. Has been mentioned in the literature under other names, particularly Hyporhamphus erythrorinchus and Hyporhamphus dussumieri (Ref. 10943).
Found chiefly around coral reefs (Ref. 58534) and islands but extends a little further from shore than Hyporhamphus (R.) dussumieri which has a similar range (Ref. 10943). Found in schools (Ref. 9710). Feeds on zooplankton and floating matter. Eggs covered with adhesive filaments to assist in attaching to floating and benthic objects (Ref. 43448).
Collette, B.B. and J. Su, 1986. The halfbeaks (Pisces, Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae) of the Far East. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 138(1):250-301.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00000 (0.00000 - 0.00000), b=0.00 (0.00 - 0.00), based on (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.48 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .