Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 53°N - 13°N
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 520 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4442)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Larger than M. hypostoma, tail with spine and prickles (Ref. 6902).
Eastern Atlantic: off southwest Ireland, Mediterranean Sea and Portugal south to Senegal, including the Canary and Azores islands. Possibly straying into the northwest Atlantic. Reported from India (Ref. 45255).
An epipelagic species (Ref. 6808) found over continental shelves and near oceanic islands (Ref. 6679). Feeds on small pelagic fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6679). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 6679, 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Mobulidae. p. 73-76. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4442)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.53 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .