Cynoglossus arel  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Largescale tonguesole
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Cynoglossus arel   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Cynoglossus arel (Largescale tonguesole)
Cynoglossus arel
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae (Tonguefishes) > Cynoglossinae
Etymology: Cynoglossus: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, glossa = tongue (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 9 - 125 m (Ref. 9895).   Tropical; 30°N - 5°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 20.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3391)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 116-130; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 85 - 98; Vertebrae: 50 - 57. Eyed side uniform brown, with a dark patch on gill cover, blind side white. Body elongate, its depth 20 to 26% SL. Eyes with a small scaly interorbital space. Snout obtusely pointed. Rostral hook short. Corner of mouth reaching posteriorly to or beyond lower of eye, about midway between gill opening and tip of snout. Caudal-fin rays usually 10. Midlateral-line scales 56 to 70. Scales large, ctenoid on eyed side of body. Cycloid (smooth) on blind side. Scale rows between lateral lines on eyed side of body 7 to 9 (Ref 9895).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Sri Lanka and Indonesia, north to southern Japan. Reported occurrence of this species from Niue (Ref. 3804) should be verified.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of the continental shelf down to 125 m. Enters estuaries and tidal rivers (Ref. 1479). Feeds predominantly on bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed mostly fresh and frozen; also dried-salted (Ref. 9895).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00247 - 0.00771), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.