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Epinephelus bruneus  Bloch, 1793

Longtooth grouper
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Epinephelus bruneus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus bruneus (Longtooth grouper)
Epinephelus bruneus
Picture by Chiang, S.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Bloch.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 20 - 200 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 38°N - 18°N, 108°E - 142°E (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 54 - ? cm
Max length : 136 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137); max. published weight: 33.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: adults dark greyish brown; body covered with small pale grey spots forming short horizontal lines and mottled pattern; lower margin of the anal fin and lower corner of the caudal fin with white edge; juveniles pale yellowish brown, body with 6 irregular oblique dark bars containing irregular pale spots; elongate body, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; convex interorbital area; angular preopercle, serrae at angle distinctly enlarged; inconspicuous dorsal spine on opercle; convex upper edge of operculum; small and subequal posterior and anterior nostrils; maxilla reaching past vertical at rear edge of eye, tiny embedded scales on maxilla; absence of step on ventral edge of maxilla; 2 rows of well-developed canines on midlateral part of lower jaw; caudal fin rounded; mid-lateral body scales ctenoid, without auxiliary scales on body (Ref. 089707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: Korea, Japan (north to Hegura-jima Island), China (south to Hong Kong and Hainan Island), and Taiwan.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits rocky reefs; also found on muddy grounds (Ref. 089707). Juveniles occur in shallow waters. Commercially cultured in Japan.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.