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Epinephelus bleekeri  (Vaillant, 1878)

Duskytail grouper
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
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Epinephelus bleekeri   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus bleekeri (Duskytail grouper)
Epinephelus bleekeri
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 105 m (Ref. 89707).   Tropical; 32°N - 17°S, 48°E - 136°E (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 42 - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2852)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8 - 9. Recognized by the bluish lower half of the caudal fin and the lack of spots there compared to the upper half (Ref. 48635); characterized further by: generally brown color; head, body and fins with red to dark brown spots; body scales ctenoid, except cycloid scales on nape, thorax and ventrally on abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; elongate body, greatest depth 3.0-3.5 in SL; truncate to slightly rounded caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.9-2.4 in head length (Ref 90102); head length 2.4-2.7 times in standard length; interorbital area flat to slightly convex; preopercle angle with 2-9 enlarged serrae, adults with a notch above angle; straight upper edge of operculum; scaly maxilla, reaching to or beyond vertical at rear edge of eye; 2 rows of subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 089707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Taiwan, Indonesia and the northern coast of Australia. Not known from Japan, but may occur here. It has not been found at any islands of Micronesia nor Polynesia.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs on shallow banks, but is not known from well-developed coral reefs (Ref. 27253) and adjacent soft substrate in depths of 30-105 m (Ref. 089707). Benthic (Ref. 75154). In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Usually taken by trawling in 30-45 m or by hand-lining over rocky banks; not found from coral reefs (Ref. 11441). Also found in silty coastal reefs and estuaries and is solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00628 - 0.01592), b=3.03 (2.90 - 3.16), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tmax=24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (60 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.