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Lithognathus mormyrus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Sand steenbras
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| Native range | All suitable habitat | PointMap | Year 2100 |
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Lithognathus mormyrus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Lithognathus mormyrus (Sand steenbras)
Lithognathus mormyrus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Lithognathus: Greek, lithos = stone + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 3688), usually 10 - 20 m (Ref. 37413).   Subtropical; 50°N - 40°S

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 18.8, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3688); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 13716)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-13; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 10 - 11

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay, Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean, Black, and Azov seas to Cape of Good Hope, South Africa and the Mozambique Channel. Also found around the Canary Islands, Cape Verde (Ref. 4781) and Madeira Is (Ref. 74541). Western Indian Ocean: Red Sea; southern Mozambique to the Cape of Good Hope; not found in tropical east Africa (Ref. 3198).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on the shelf, over sandy and muddy bottoms as well as seagrass-beds and estuaries. Gregarious, sometimes forming sizeable schools. Feeds on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans. Protandric hermaphrodite (Ref. 3688). Flesh excellent (Ref. 3198); sold fresh and dried.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

A monandric species (Ref. 55367). In the northern Adriatic, overall male to female ratio was 1:1.62. Sex inversion occurred mainly between 24.1 and 35.2 cm TL and 3.5 years of age (Ref. 55367). Also Ref. 28504.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01114 - 0.01423), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24; tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.