Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 0 - 2200 m (Ref. 90824), usually 88 - 1600 m (Ref. 5179). Polar; 45°S - 78°S, 180°W - 180°E
Southern Ocean: circumpolar coastal Antarctic broadly to the Convergence (Ref. 11892). Endemic to the seas around Antarctica (Ref. 5179).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 133.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90825); common length : 127 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90825); max. published weight: 80.0 kg (Ref. 5179); max. reported age: 39 years (Ref. 88081)
Larval pelagic phase is long (Ref. 89402).
Dewitt, H.H., P.C. Heemstra and O. Gon, 1990. Nototheniidae. p. 279-331. In O. Gon and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Fishes of the Southern Ocean. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. (Ref. 5179)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): -1.5 - 1.3, mean 0.2 °C (based on 411 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00583 - 0.02159), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.056; Fec=400,000).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (81 of 100) .