Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Paralepididae
Etymology: Arctozenus: Greek, arktos = bear + particle zen, derived from zao = to give life; risso: Named after A. Risso, European ichthyologist (Ref. 6885). More on author: Bonaparte.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 2200 m (Ref. 50610). Deep-water; 71°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E
Worldwide distribution from the Arctic to Antarctic. Eastern Pacific: British Columbia (55°N) to at least north central Baja California (28°N) (Ref. 35950). Northwest Pacific: Bering Sea, Kamchatka, Kuril Islands (Ref. 41668).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4473)
Pseudoceanic and mesopelagic, occurring singly or in small schools (Ref. 5759), primarily at 200-1000 (Ref. 58302). Feed mainly on fishes and shrimps (Ref. 5759). Spawn in continental slopes and in oceanic banks from northern through tropical to southern temperate waters. Oviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 35950).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Post, A., 1990. Paralepididae. p. 373-384. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4473)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.8 - 10.8, mean 4.1 (based on 2120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00122 - 0.00862), b=3.08 (2.85 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .