Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 150 m (Ref. 9988). Temperate; 72°N - 43°N, 25°W - 45°E (Ref. 54565)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 26.0, range 13 - 25 cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4705); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 27407)
Northeast Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Iceland and Norway; Barents and White seas; also Baltic Sea.
Adults live mainly on sandy bottoms, from a few meters to about 100 m. Feed mainly on crustaceans and small fishes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled. microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00680 - 0.00927), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3-0.6; tm=2-3; tmax=12; Fec=50,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .