Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sparidae
Etymology: Lithognathus: Greek, lithos = stone + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Smith.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - ? m. Tropical, preferred ?; 13°S - 28°S
Southeast Atlantic: Angola to South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 46.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3198); max. published weight: 19.3 kg (Ref. 3670); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 37572)
Found inshore over sandy bottoms. Feeds on sand mussels, worms and crabs. Protandrous (Ref. 4332), but some specimens with both male and female gonads well-developed at the same time (Ref. 3198). Commonly fished between October and March (Ref. 36731). A popular angling fish and an important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00758 - 0.02885), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.06-0.09; tm=4.8-9.7; tmax=50).
Prior r = 0.2, 2 SD range = 0.08 - 0.52, log(r) = -1.61, SD log(r) = 0.47, Based on: 2 K, 4 tgen, 1 tmax, records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .