Epinephelus polyphekadion  (Bleeker, 1849)

Camouflage grouper
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Epinephelus polyphekadion   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Camouflage grouper)
Epinephelus polyphekadion
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 46 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 30°N - 34°S, 27°E - 134°W (Ref. 5222)

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4319); common length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-15; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: pale brown color; head, body and fins covered by numerous small dark brown spots; whitish upper half of body with large irregular dark blotches and dark saddle on upper tail base; body scales ctenoid in broad zone on side from beneath pectoral fin to caudal peduncle, cycloid elsewhere; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.1 in SL; rounded caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.9-2.4 in head length (Ref 90102); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; flat interorbital area, evenly convex dorsal head profile; rounded preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; very convex upper edge of operculum; posterior nostril diameter about twice diameter of anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches to or beyond vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; front of jaws with inconspicuous fixed canines (Ref. 89707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to French Polynesia. In the western Pacific it ranges from southern Japan to southern Queensland and Lord Howe Island. Often confused with Epinephelus fuscoguttatus.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Usually found in coral-rich areas of lagoon and outer reefs; in caves and large crevices to swim through (Ref. 48635). Most abundant around islands, particularly atolls. Usually in small schools. Feeds mainly on crustaceans (portunid crabs) and fishes, sometimes on cephalopods and gastropods. In the Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Frequently ciguatoxic in the Marshall Is. (Ref. 37816). Solitary (Ref 90102).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 1602)




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on empirical models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00812 - 0.01864), b=3.06 (2.94 - 3.18), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.