Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335). More on author: Schultz.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 5213). Tropical; 29°N - 34°S, 28°E - 157°W (Ref. 5222)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
Indo-West Pacific: Natal, South Africa to the central Pacific. Not known from the Red Sea nor Persian Gulf.
Occur in outer reef flats and shallow lagoon (Ref. 37816). Reported to be taken in a trawl, thus presumably caught somewhat deeper than 7 m. Also reported to occur in reefs at a depth of about 30 m (Ref. 5213). Because of its small size and apparent rarity, it is of little or no commercial importance. Solitary (Ref 90102).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31637)
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .