Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 30 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 35°N - 8°N, 105°E - 128°E (Ref. 5222)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
Western Pacific: southern Japan to Taiwan, China including Hainan, Hong Kong, Viet Nam, Philippines, and Sarawak, Malaysia.
Inhabits shallow rocky areas and feeds on small fishes, prawns, crabs, worms, and gastropods. An excellent food fish and brings a good price. Solitary, found in rocky bottoms in 15-30 m (Ref 90102).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 90363)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
CollaboratorsPicturesStamps, CoinsSoundsCiguateraSpeedSwim. typeGill areaOtolithsBrainsVision
Estimates of some properties based on empirical models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01140 (-0.16151 - 0.18432), b=3.04 (2.94 - 3.13), based on LWR estimates for this family-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.58 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .