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Epinephelus bontoides  (Bleeker, 1855)

Palemargin grouper
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Image of Epinephelus bontoides (Palemargin grouper)
Epinephelus bontoides
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 23°N - 11°S, 120°E - 154°E (Ref. 5222)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Characterized by grey brown color with scattered reddish brown to black spots; narrow pale margins on dark grey fins; body scales ctenoid, except cycloid scales dorsally and ventrally; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.8-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.3 in head length (Ref 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; interorbital area flat to slightly convex, almost straight dorsal head profile; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, ventral serrae slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; maxilla reaches past rear edge of eye; 2 or 3 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 089707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan, Solomon Islands (Ref. 4787) and New Britain.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on mud or rocky or cobble bottoms (Ref. 089707). The species appears to be one of the rarest groupers in the Indo-Pacific region, nothing has been published on its biology. Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00552 - 0.02177), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .