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Cephalopholis spiloparaea  (Valenciennes, 1828)

Strawberry hind
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Cephalopholis spiloparaea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Cephalopholis spiloparaea (Strawberry hind)
Cephalopholis spiloparaea
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 15 - 108 m (Ref. 9710), usually 30 - 108 m (Ref. 9710).   Tropical; 32°N - 30°S, 40°E - 131°W (Ref. 5222)

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48636)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9 - 10. Characterized by pinkish red to pale reddish orange color; mottling of darker red to brownish red; median fins with narrow blue marginal stripe; body scales ctenoid, cycloid scales ventroanteriorly on abdomen; greatest depth of body 2.7-3.2 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.9-2.2 in head length (Ref 90102); eyes large, diameter about twice the depth of the preorbital; interorbital area flat; rounded preopercle, very finely serrate, shallow notch, fleshy lower edge; smooth or with serrae subopercle and interopercle; scaly maxilla, reaching to or well beyond vertical at rear edge of eye (Ref. 089707).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Pinda, Mozambique (15°S) to French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Group, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Heron Island at the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. Often misidentified as Cephalopholis aurantia (or as Cephalopholis analis, a junior synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Perhaps the most common grouper on Indo-Pacific coral reefs found below 40 m. The species is only known from insular localities except those collected from Pinda, Mozambique. Apparently, nothing is known of the biology of this species. The small size (<22 cm TL) and deep-water habitat of this species makes it less vulnerable to fishing (Ref. 58472). Solitary (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00640 - 0.02477), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.